Tale of a 'terrorist treasure map'
By Laura Blumenfeld
Date: July 10, 2003
Sean Gorman's professor called his dissertation "tedious and unimportant." Gorman didn't talk about it when he went on dates because "it was so boring they'd start staring up at the ceiling."
But since 9-11, Gorman's work has become so compelling that companies want to seize it, government officials want to suppress it, and al-Qaida operatives - if they could get their hands on it - would find a terrorist treasure map.
Tinkering on a laptop, this George Mason University graduate student has mapped every business and industrial sector in the American economy, layering on top the fiber-optic network that connects them.
He can click on a bank in Manhattan and see who has communication lines running into it and where. He can zoom in on Baltimore and find the choke point for trucking warehouses. He can drill into a cable trench between Kansas and Colorado and determine how to create the most havoc with a hedge clipper.
Using mathematical formulas, he probes for critical links, trying to answer the question: "If I were Osama bin Laden, where would I want to attack?" In the background, he plays the Beastie Boys.
Because of his project, Gorman has become part of an expanding field of researchers whose work is coming under scrutiny for national security reasons. His story illustrates new ripples in the old tension between an open society and a secure society.
"I'm this grad student," said Gorman, 29. "Never in my wildest dreams would I have imagined I'd be briefing government officials and private-sector CEOs."
Invariably, he said, they suggest his work be classified. "Classify my dissertation? Crap. Does this mean I have to redo my Ph.D?" he said. "They're worried about national security. I'm worried about getting my degree." For academics, there always has been the imperative to publish or perish. In Gorman's case, there's a new concern: publish and perish.
"He should turn it in to his professor, get his grade - and then they both should burn it," said Richard Clarke, who until recently was the White House cyberterrorism chief. "The fiber-optic network is our country's nervous system." Every fiber, thin as a hair, carries the impulses responsible for Internet traffic, telephones, cell phones, military communications, bank transfers, air traffic control, signals to the power grids and water systems, among other things.
"You don't want to give terrorists a road map to blow that up," he said.
The Washington Post has agreed not to print the results of Gorman's research. Some argue that the critical targets should be publicized, because it would force the government and industry to protect them. "It's a tricky balance," said Michael Vatis, founder and first director of the National Infrastructure Protection Center. Vatis noted the dangerous time gap between exposing the weaknesses and patching them: "But I don't think security through obscurity is a winning strategy."
Gorman compiled his mega-map using publicly available material he found on the Internet. None of it was classified.
Five years ago, he began work on a master's degree in geography. His original intention was to map the physical infrastructure of the Internet, to see who was connected, who was not, and to measure its economic impact.
"We just had this research idea, and thought, 'OK,"' said his research partner, Laurie Schintler, an assistant professor at the university. "I wasn't even thinking about implications."
The implications, however, in the post-Sept. 11 world, were enough to knock the wind out of John M. Derrick Jr., chairman of the board of Pepco Holdings Inc., which provides power to 1.8 million customers in the Washington, D.C., area. When a reporter showed him sample pages of Gorman's findings, he exhaled sharply.
"This is why CEOs of major power companies don't sleep well these days," Derrick said, flattening the pages with his fist. "Why in the world have we been so stupid as a country to have all this information in the public domain? Does that openness still make sense? It sure as hell doesn't to me."
Recently, Derrick received an e-mail from an atlas company offering to sell him a color-coded map of the United States with all the electric power generation and transmission systems. He hit the reply button on his e-mail and typed: "With friends like you, we don't need any enemies in the world."
Toward the other end of the free speech spectrum are such people as John Young, a New York architect who created a Web site with a friend, featuring aerial pictures of nuclear weapons storage areas, military bases, ports, dams and secret government bunkers, along with driving directions from Mapquest.com. He has been contacted by the FBI, he said, but the site is still up.
"It gives us a great thrill," Young said. "If it's banned, it should be published. We like defying authority as a matter of principle."
When Gorman and Schintler presented their findings to government officials, John McCarthy, who oversees Gorman's project at the university's National Center for Technology and Law, recalled, "they said, 'Pssh, let's scarf this up and classify it.' "
And when they presented them at a forum of chief information officers of the country's largest financial services companies, the executives suggested that Gorman and Schintler not be allowed to leave the building with the laptop.
Businesses are particularly sensitive about such data. They don't want to lose consumer confidence, don't want to be liable for security lapses and don't want competitors to know about their weaknesses. The CIOs for Wells Fargo and Mellon Financial Corp. attended the meeting. Neither would comment for this story.
Catherine Allen, chief executive of BITS, the technology group for the financial services roundtable, said the attendees were "amazed" and "concerned" to see how interdependent their systems were. After the presentation, she said, they decided to hold an exercise in an undisclosed Midwestern city this summer. They plan to simulate a cyber assault and a bomb attack jointly with the telecommunications industry and the National Communications System to measure the effect on financial services.
McCarthy hopes that by identifying vulnerabilities, the university's research will help solve a risk management problem: "We know we can't have a policeman at every bank and switching facility, so what things do you secure?"
Terrorists, presumably, are exploring the question from the other end. In December 2001, bin Laden appeared in a videotape and urged the destruction of the U.S. economy. He smiled occasionally, leaned into the camera and said, "This economic hemorrhaging continues until today, but requires more blows. And the youth should try to find the joints of the American economy and hit the enemy in these joints, with God's permission."
Every day, Gorman tries to identify those "joints," sitting in a gray cinderblock lab secured by an electronic lock, multiple sign-on codes and a paper shredder. No one other than Gorman, Schintler or their research instructor, Rajendra Kulkarni, is allowed inside^; they even take out their own trash. When their computer crashed, they removed the hard drive, froze it, smashed it and rubbed magnets over the surface to erase the data.
The university has imposed the security guidelines. It is trying to build a cooperative relationship with the Department of Homeland Security. Brenton Greene, director for infrastructure coordination at the department, described the project as "a cookbook of how to exploit the vulnerabilities of our nation's infrastructure." He applauds Gorman's work, as long as he refrains from publishing details.
All this is a bit heavy for Gorman, who is in many ways a typical student. His Christmas lights are still up in July^; his living room couch came from a trash pile on the curb. Twice a day, Gorman rows on the Potomac River. Out on the water, pulling the oars, he can stop thinking about how someone could bring down the New York Stock Exchange or cripple the Federal Reserve's ability to transfer money.
On a recent afternoon, he drove his Jeep from the Fairfax campus toward the river. Along the way he talked about his dilemma: not wanting to hurt national security^; not wanting to ruin his career as an academic.
"Is this going to completely squash me?" he said, biting his fingernail. The university has determined that he will publish only the most general aspects of his work. "Academics make their name as an expert in something. ... If I can't talk about it, it's hard to get hired. It's hard to put 'classified' on your list of publications on your resume."
As he drove along Route 50, he pointed out a satellite tower and a Verizon installation. Somewhere in Arlington he took a wrong turn and stopped to ask for directions. It has always been that way with him. He's great at maps, but somehow he ends up lost.
Original article: http://www.fortwayne.com/mld/fortwayne/news/local/6264490.htm
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