Computer Crime Problems Research Center

By Andrey Belousov





With development of science and technics in the field of computer technologies in the second half twentieth century the new sphere of public attitudes demanding the legal regulation has appeared. New information technologies have considerably increased efficiency of existing information systems, irrespective of fields of their functioning (economy, the law, medicine, etc.). Modern computer networks allow to carry out an exchange in significant volumes of the information in various spheres of social activity of the person (bank operations, mail, the international conferences, etc.).


So, in connection with a computerization in the field of securities their tendency of "dematerialization" was outlined. Instead of a share issue their fixing even more often practices the traditional documentary form, no less than transactions with them, using a computer. One of legislators in this area was France, where since 1984 release of securities in the "dematerialize" form is legalized. The main difference of new technology consists that mutual relations occur in "real time" i.e. people which are taking place in different cities or the different states, as though are in one place, and build the mutual relations among themselves without taking into account their location.


However, alongside with the positive sides of computerization, it has generated such negative phenomena, as computer crimes, i.e. infringements of the law by means of computers and corresponding technologies. The given circumstance has caused occurrence of new branch of the legislation, demanding development of concept and kinds of computer crimes, their classifications and measures of punishment for fulfillment of these socially dangerous acts. This field of the legislation is at a stage of the becoming and yet does not give full notion about offences and measures of punishment for cyber crimes.


The subjects of these crimes are named "hackers", "technorats", etc. That is, it is persons who by means of computer technics and corresponding technologies obviously or secretly penetrate into computer system of other persons or organizations, without their knowledge, purposing mercenary object or without those.


In my opinion, the most widespread computer offences are:

The non-authorized copying and distribution of computer maintenance;

Breaking protected programs;

Distribution of the computer viruses, promoting failures in job of computer systems by destruction of the information;

A fake of credit cards;

Breaking computer systems of banks and departmental establishments;

Breaking telephone exchanges on distance or damage of cellular telephones and so forth.


The problem will be, that the given acts are extremely difficult for establish proofs since the offender does not use traditional means of a crime fulfillment.


The most effective way of disclosing of a computer offence is to exposure its subject at a stage of direct fulfillment of an encroachment. However it is, more likely, exception, than a rule, because the guilty can be on distance of thousand kilometers from a place of a crime fulfillment.


From above-stated follows, that one of the problems of criminal law and criminalistics is creation of optimum system of the criminal - rules of law, connected to computer crimes, and development of techniques on their investigation and the prevention.


Kinds of payment cards


The plastic card is the personal payment tool giving to the person using a card an opportunity of non-cash payment of the goods and-or services, and also receptions of cash in banks branches and cash dispensers. Trading/service enterprises and banks' branches, accepting a card, form a network of card service (or a reception network).


Feature of sales and cash deliveries on cards is that these operations are carried out by shops and banks "on credit" - the goods and cash are given clients at once, and the compensation money come on bills of the serving enterprises as a rule no more several days later. The guarantor of performance of the payment obligations arising during service of plastic cards, the bank - emitter who has issued them is. Therefore cards during all validity remain the property of bank, and clients (holders of cards) receive them only in using. Character of guarantees of the bank - emitter depends on the payment powers given to the client and fixed by a class of a card.


At delivery of a card to the client its personification is carried out - the data will be recorded on it, allowing to identify a card and its holder, and also to verify of solvency of a card at it reception for payment or cash delivery. Process of sale or cash delivery on a card is called as authorization. For its carrying out the service-office interpellates to payment system about acknowledgement of powers of the bearer of a card and its financial opportunities. The technology of authorization depends on the circuit of payment system, such as a card and technical equipment of a service-office. Traditionally authorization is spent "manually" when the seller or the cashier tells by search to phone to the operator (voice authorization), or automatically, when the card is located in the POS-terminal or the trading terminal (POS - Point Of Sale), the data are read out from a card, the cashier enters the sum of payment, and the card holder uses the special keyboard and puts down - a confidential PIN-CODE (PIN - Personal Identification Number). After that the terminal carries out authorization or connection with a database of payment system (on-line a mode), or adds changed data to the card (off-line authorization). The cash delivery procedure has similar character with only feature, that money in an automatic mode are given out by the special device - a cash dispenser which spends authorization.


At settlement realization the card holder has some limits. Character of limits and conditions of their use can be rather various. In general all is reduced to two basic ways.


The debit card holder should bring beforehand on the bank-emitter account some sum. Its size determines a limit of accessible resources. At realization of calculations using a card the limit decreases synchronously . The limit control is carried out together with authorization which is obligatory at use of a debit card. For renewal (or increases) a limit the card holder has to bring the money for the bill again.


For maintenance of payments the a card holder may not preliminary bring financial resources, and can receive the credit in the bank - emitter. This scheme is realized at payment by means of a credit card. In this case the limit is connected to size of the given credit which the card holder can spend. The credit can be both unitary, and renewed. Renewal of the credit occurs after repayment all sum of debts, or its some part.


Both credit, and debit cards can be also corporate. Corporate cards are given by the company to the employees for payment of traveling or other service charges. Corporate cards of the company are connected to one its bill. Cards may have the shared and unshared limits. In the first case the individual limit is established for each of corporate cards holders. The second variant approaches the small companies and does not assume differentiation of a limit. Corporate cards allow the company to trace service charges of employees in details.


Family cards in the certain sense are similar corporate - the payment right is given members of the card holder family within the established limit. Thus the separate personalized cards are given additional users.


Emitters and equires


The bank - emitter, issues cards and guarantees performance of the financial obligations connected to its use. The bank - emitter doesn't provide reception of a card by enterprises of trade and service sphere. These problems solves the bank - equire which is carrying out all spectrum of operations on interaction with cards service-offices, and namely - transaction processing on authorization, transfer the money to settlement accounts for the goods and services, reception, sorting and transfer of documents (paper and electronic), transactions fixing fulfillment with use of cards, distribution of stops - sheets (lists of cards, operations on which for whatever reasons for today are suspended), etc. Besides the bank - equire can deliver cash on cards both in the branches, and through cash dispensers belonging to him. The bank can combine the functions equire and the emitter. It is necessary to note, that the basic, integral functions of bank - equire are settlements and payments to service-offices. As for the listed above technical attributes of its activity they can be delegated by the bank to the specialized service organizations - the processing centers.

The performance of equire's functions entails the settlements to emitters. Each bank - equire transfers the money to service-office on payments of card holders of the banks-emitters which are included in the given payment system. Therefore the resources corresponding (and probably, the compensation for the given cash) should be transferred to equire by these emitters. Operative payments between equire and emitters are provided with the aid of a clearing bank (one or several) in payment system. The banks - members of system open correspondent accounts here.


Payment system


Payment system we shall name set of methods and realizing them subjects providing within the system the conditions for use of bank plastic cards of the stipulated standard as payment means. One of the primary goals is to develop and observe of the general rules of service the cards included in emitters system. These rules cover technical aspects of operations with cards (standards of the data, procedures of authorization, the specification on the used equipment), and the financial sides of service of cards (the payments to enterprises, included in a reception network, the settlements rules between banks, tariffs, etc.)


Thus, the basis of payment system is the banks association based on treaty obligations. The structure of payment system also includes trading enterprises and the service, forming a network of service-offices. For successful payment system functioning the specialized not financial organizations are necessary. They are carrying out technical support of cards services: the processing and communication centers, the centers of maintenance service, etc.


The processing center - the specialized service organization - provides processing acting searches about authorization and/or reports of transactions - the fixed data on the payments made by means of cards and cash deliveries. For this purpose the center create a database which, in particular, contains the data on banks, which are members of payment system and cards holders. The center stores data on limits of cards holders and makes searches about authorization. Otherwise (on-line bank) the processing center sends the received search in the bank-emitter of cards. It is obvious, that the center provides transfer of the answer to bank-equire. Besides on the basis of the reports of transactions saved up for a day processing center prepares and dispatches a total for carrying out payments between banks - participants of payment system, and also forms and dispatches stop-sheets to banks-equire. The processing center can also provide requirements of banks-emitters for new cards, carrying out their order at factories and the subsequent personification. It is necessary to note, that the ramified payment system can have some processing centers which role at a regional level banks-equire can carry out too.


The communication centers provide access to data networks for subjects of payment system. Use of special high-efficiency lines of the communications is caused by necessity of transfer of great volumes of the data between geographically allocated participants of payment system during authorization of cards in trading terminals, at cards service in cash dispensers, at carrying out payments between participants of system and in other cases. [3]


Technical Means

Kinds of plastic cards


The plastic card represents a plate of the standard sizes (85.6 mm of 53.9 mm of 0.76 mm), made of special, steady against mechanical and thermal influences, plastic. From the consideration lead by the previous sections follows, that one of the basic functions of a plastic card is maintenance of identification of the using it person as subject of payment system. For this purpose on a plastic card trade marks of the bank - emitter and the payment system serving a card, a name of the holder of a card, its bill number, validity of a card and so forth are rendered. Besides there can be a photo of the holder and his signature on a card. The alphanumeric data (a name, number of the bill, etc.) - can be marked by a relief font. It enables at manual processing of cards transfer quickly the data for the check with the help of the special device, imprinter, carrying out "rolling" of a card (in accuracy the same as it turns out the second copy at use of a copy paper).

The graphic data provide an opportunity of visual identification of a card. Cards which service is based on such principle, can be used with success in small local systems - as club, store cards, etc. However for use in bank payment system of visual "processing" it appears obviously insufficiently. It is represented expedient to store the data on a card as, providing carrying out of procedure of automatic authorization. This problem can be solved with use of various physical mechanisms.


In cards with a bar code as an identifying element the code similar to a code, used for marks of the goods is used. Usually code strip is covered with opaque structure and reading of a code occurs in infra-red beams. Cards with a bar code are rather cheap and, in comparison with other types of maps, rather simple in manufacturing. Last feature causes their weak security from a fake makes them of little use in payment systems.


Cards with a magnetic strip are the most widespread for today - in circulation is over two billions cards of similar type. The magnetic strip settles down on the back side of a card and, according to standard ISO 7811, will consist of three tracks. First two of them are intended for storage of the identification data, and on a third it is possible to write down the information (for example, the current value of a limit of a debit card). However because of low reliability of repeated process of recording / reading, recording on a magnetic strip, as a rule, does not practice, and such cards are used only in a mode of reading of the information. Security of cards with a magnetic strip is essentially higher, than at cards with a bar code. However and such type of cards is rather vulnerable for swindle. So, in the USA in 1992 the total damage from frauds with credit cards with a magnetic strip (without taking into account losses with cash dispensers) has exceeded one billion dollars. Nevertheless, the advanced infrastructure of existing payment systems and, first of all, global leaders of "card" business - companies MasterCard/Europay is the reason of a complex use of cards with a magnetic strip. We shall note, that for increase of security of cards of system VISA and MasterCard/Europay additional graphic means of protection are used: holograms and non-standard fonts for imprint.


On a face sheet of a card with a magnetic strip it is usually underlined: a trade mark of the bank - emitter, a trade mark of payment system, number of a card (the first 6 figures - a code of bank, the following 9 - bank number of a card, last figure - control, last four figures are put on the hologram), validity of a card, a name of the holder of a card; on the back - a magnetic strip, a place for the signature.


In smarts - cards a data carrier is the microcircuit. At elementary of existing smarts-cards - memory-cards - the memory size can reach from 32 bytes up to 16 kilobyte. This memory can be realized as well as R which supposes unitary recording and repeated reading, or as EEPROM, admitting both repeated reading, and repeated recording. Cards of memory are subdivided into two types: with unprotected (full-accessible) and the protected memory. In cards of the first type there are no restrictions on reading and data recording. Availability of all memory makes them convenient for modeling any structures of the data that is obviously important in some applications. Cards with the protected memory have area of the identification data and one or several applied areas. The identification area of cards supposes only unitary recording at personification, and further is accessible only on reading. Access to applied areas is regulated and carried out on presentation of a corresponding key. The level of cards protection of memory is higher, than at magnetic cards, and they can be used in applied systems in which the financial risks connected to swindle, are rather insignificant. As for cost of cards of memory they are more expensive, than magnetic maps. However recently the prices for them have considerably decreased in connection with improvement of technology and growth of volumes of manufacture. Cost of a card of memory directly depends on cost of the microcircuit determined, in turn, in capacity of memory.


Special case of memory cards are maps - counters in which the value stored in memory, can change only on the fixed size. Similar cards are used in the specialized applications with an advance payment (a payment for use of the phone - automatic device, payment of parking place, etc.)


Cards with the microprocessor represent as a matter of fact microcomputers and contain all corresponding basic hardware components: the central processor, the RAM, a ROM, EEPROM, EPROM. Parameters of the most powerful modern microprocessor cards are comparable to characteristics of personal computers of the beginning of the eightieth. The operational system stored in a ROM of a microprocessor card, essentially differs nothing from operational system of the PC and gives the big set of service operations and means of safety. The operational system supports the file system basing in EEPROM (which capacity usually is in a range 1 - 8 Kb, but can reach and 64 Kb) and providing regulation of a data access. Thus the part of the data can be accessible only to internal programs of a card, that together with the built - in cryptographic means makes a microprocessor card well-safed by the tool which can be used in the financial applications showing increased requirements to protection of the information. For this reason microprocessor cards (and smarts - cards in general) are considered now as the most perspective kind of plastic cards. Besides smarts - cards are the most perspective type of plastic cards as well from the point of view of functionalities. Computing opportunities of smarts - cards allow to use, for example, the same card in operations with on-line authorization and as a multicurrency electronic purse. Their wide use in systems VISA and Europay/MasterCard will begin already in the nearest year or two, and within a decade the smart-cards should supersede completely cards with a magnetic strip (at least, plans are those...) .


Except for the types of the plastic cards used in financial applications described above, there are some more the cards based on other mechanisms of a data storage. Such cards (optical, induction and so forth) are used in medical systems, systems of safety, etc.


POS - terminals

POS-terminals, or trading terminals, are intended for processing transactions at financial calculations with use of plastic cards with a magnetic strip and smarts-cards. Use of POS-terminals allows to automate operations on service of a card and it is essential to reduce a holding time. Opportunities and a complete set of POS-terminals vary over a wide range, however the typical modern terminal is supplied with devices of reading as smarts-cards, and cards with a magnetic strip, non-volatile memory, ports for connection of the PIN-KEYBOARD (the keyboard for a set of the PIN-CODE), the printer, connection with the PC or with an electronic cash register.

Besides usually the POS-terminal happens is equipped with the modem with an opportunity of a call-back. The POS-terminal possesses "intellectual" opportunities - it can be programmed. As programming languages the assembler, and also dialects C and Basica are used. All this allows to spend not only on-line authorization of cards with a magnetic strip and smarts-maps, but also to use at work with smarts-cards a mode off-line with accumulation of reports of transactions. The last during sessions of communication are passed to processing center. During a session of connection the POS-terminal can accept and remember the information transmitted by the COMPUTER of the processing center. Basically it there are stops-sheets, but by similar image can be carried out and reprogramming of POS-terminals.


Cost of POS-terminals depending on a complete set, opportunities, the firm-manufacturer and can vary from several hundreds up to several thousand dollars, however usually does not exceed one and a half - two thousand. The sizes and weight of the POS-terminal are comparable to similar parameters of a telephone set, and frequently are and less.

Cash dispensers

Cash dispensers - bank automatic devices for cash-delivery operations with plastic cards. Besides the cash dispenser allows the holder of a card to receive the information on the current status of the bill (including an extract on a paper), and also, basically, to spend operations on transfer of means from one bill on another. Obviously, the cash dispenser is supplied with the device for reading a card, and with the display and the keyboard for interaction with the card-holder. The cash dispenser is equipped with the personal COMPUTER which provides management of a cash dispenser and the control of its status. The last is rather important, as the cash dispenser is storehouse of cash. For today the majority of models is designed for job in on-line a mode with cards with a magnetic strip, also the devices, capable to work with smarts - cards and in off-line a mode however have appeared. For maintenance of communication functions cash dispensers are equipped with plateau X.25, and, in some cases, - modems.

Monetary denominations in a cash dispenser are placed in cartridges which are in the special safe. The number of cartridges defines amount of face values of the denominations which are given out by a cash dispenser. The sizes of cartridges are adjusted, that enables to charge a cash dispenser practically any denominations.

Cash dispensers - stationary devices of solid dimensions and weights. The provisional sizes: height - 1.5 - 1.8 m, width and depth - about 1 m, weight - about ton. Moreover, with the purpose of prevention of possible plunders, they are mounted capitally. Cash dispensers can be placed as well as in rooms, as directly in the street, and can work round the clock.


The processing center and communications

Processing center is the specialized computer center being a technological center of payment system. The processing center functions in severe conditions, guaranteed processing an intensive stream of transactions in real time . Really, use of a debit card results in necessity on-line authorizations of each transaction in any service-office of payment system. With a credit card authorization is necessary for operations not in all cases, but, for example, at reception of money in cash dispensers it also is spent always. Requirements to computing opportunities of processing center are showed also with preparation of the data for carrying out settlements on results of day as to processing reports significant (if not overwhelming) are subject to a part of transactions. The performance required terms of calculations are some hours.


Except computing capacities, the processing center if it carries out all spectrum of service functions, should be equipped also for personification of plastic cards (probably smarts cards) and also to have base for technical support and repair of POS-terminals and cash dispensers.


So, maintenance of reliable, steady functioning of payment system demands, first, presence of essential computing capacities in the processing center and, second, the advanced communication infrastructure, because the processing center of system should have an opportunity simultaneously to serve a lot of geographically removed points. Besides, routing of searches is inevitable, that toughens requirements to communications even more. In summary we shall specify one more source of messages - electronic documents which banks-participants with a clearing bank exchange, and, with each other at regular carrying out the payments. It is obvious, that for the effective decision of the stated problems use of high-efficiency data networks with packet switching is necessary. From the structural point of view the data network becomes an internal integral element of payment system.


Credit cards and Internet


Transactions on credit cards reach 90 % from total amount of the transactions made in Internet now. Use of credit cards for transactions through Internet is facilitated by that circumstance, that cards holders have already got used to "cardless" transactions by phone or by mail.


Certainly, electronic commerce potentially contains openings for thefts and abusing, as other, more traditional kinds of trade. It is necessary to note, that use of credit cards in cyberspace is much more safe, than in the ordinary world. For example, carbon papers of card using can be easily stolen from a garbage box at restaurant or shop. In any case the data on numbers of credit cards of the buyers who have made purchase some time are kept in shop, that enables unscrupulous employees to use them in the roguish purposes. Listening of a telephone line for reception of numbers of credit cards also is represented much more by an easy problem, than interception and decoding of transaction in Internet. [2]


The process of becoming of Ukraine as independent state and its integration into global economic system have caused growth of interest of the state and nongovernmental bodies of many countries in an establishment the business ties with Ukraine, directed on realization of economy and science interests. However, the society information, occurring now in Ukraine, is based on the modern computer technologies, along with significant economic, technological and social positive results, is capable to put a serious loss of information and economic safety of the state. It is caused by the whole complex of objective circumstances which have generated the new phenomenon connected to concept of " computer economic criminality ", most all struck the bank sphere.


Today computer economic crimes make a body of all computer crimes all over the world. In accordance with the USA National Center data, the criminal offences accomplished with a mercenary orientation, make 60-70 % of the investigated crimes number; on political grounds (terrorism, espionage, etc.) - 15-20 %; only for the interest - 5-7 %; as hooliganism - 8-10 %. The damnification coused by such crimes reaches the enormous sizes. Only in the USA for 1997 illegal actions of computer swindlers damnificated 4 billion dollars damage to telephone and telecommunication companies. Annual losses in the countries of the Western Europe and Northern America make about 100 billion dollars one year. It is enough to say, that the largest plunders of money resources have been accomplished with the help of means of computer facilities. One of such crimes is 1 billion dollars plunder from the bank of Great Britain.


Today it is already impossible to imagine modern bank operations, commercial transactions and other payments without using the plastic cards. " Plastic money " (as in mass media these payment means often name) due to reliability, universality and convenience, have won the deserved recognition all over the world, have received a wide circulation. So, now, the Visa cards holders' number makes more than 300 million person. Also, about 300 million clients are totaled by other largest payment system presented as MasterCard and EuroCard alliance (/). Besides there are a lot of international payment systems, such as American Express (AmEx), Diners Club (DC), JCB, and numerous national, regional and local (inter-and monobank) one-currency systems.


In sphere of financial services in Ukraine during the last years, as well as all over the world, the new kind of payment means - "E-cash" also is used on the plastic cards base (magnetic and chips - maps). In the Ukrainian banks the modern computer bank technologies are introduced, including the computer system of interbank clearing settlements, that is realized since 1993. For this computer system further development it is necessary to provide a high level automation of all bank operations.

Economic computer crimes are characterized by the following features: the high , the complexity of proves gathering on established facts, the complexity of the proof in court, the "internationality" of the computer crimes made on telecommunication systems (basically on a network "Internet"), high damage even from an individual crime. It is necessary to note, that the persons making offences in sphere of the computer information, are, as a rule, highly skilled system programmers, experts in the field of telecommunication systems, bank employees.


The Ukrainian scientists predict the nearest two - three years sharp growth of number of computer crimes in Ukraine. The analysis of social preconditions, characteristic for Ukraine, allows to confirm this forecast. Thus it is necessary to take into account a high professional standard of the Ukrainian programmers, and also that the majority of them in a course of transformations of the Ukrainian economy have left the state enterprises, and have "gone" into commerce, including such structures which are engaged in "shadow" economy. Motives for offences fulfillment in the sphere of the computer information are completely different, starting from innocent entertainments and finishing by the penetration into bank computer databases, having aim to steal computer programs and mercenary monetary interests.


One of the major kinds of the information in bank are electronic money, therefore in a basis of protection of the bank information the financial-legal protection of electronic monetary circulation lays. The bank information infringes on bank clients interests (the people and practically all organizations and the enterprises). The information on monetary circulation is the information with the limited access and the bank bears the responsibility for maintenance of a required level of its protection.


In 1994 the Interpol registers 368 cases of computer crimes in bank sphere in Europe, and in 2001 the crimes in the given area has increased in 3,5 times. However the criminal statistics testifies that property of publicity becomes only 5 % of the perfect computer crimes, and only 20 % from this quantity reach the court. The plausible reason is the following: the private companies and banks rather reluctantly go for discussion of threat of computer safety even when the crime has already come to pass. They are afraid, that the similar information can create impression about vulnerability of safety of banks, that in turn will undermine trust of clients and consequently, will strike on business.


Certainly, national safety of Ukraine depends on computer networks. undreds cases of fulfillment of such illegal actions are already known in Ukraine. The computer crimes connected to Fund of the State Municipal Property of Ukraine and a lot of commercial banks, clearing settlements using computer system, - to that acknowledgement. The situation is aggravated with occurrence of Ukraine in the international system of clearing settlements on the basis of debit and credit plastic cards (the international cards such as Visa, strenuously promoted in mass-media of Ukraine), that in conditions of full low vacuum will allow physical and juridical person to take out money abroad without any control. For the third day of commissioning of system of clearing settlements in the town of Slavutich on the basis of the plastic cards given to employees of Production Association " the Chernobyl atomic power station ", the attempt of fulfillment of a computer crime by the malefactor has been stopped. On NBU (National Bank Ukraine) data (the national leader in the field of security of the information which has 10 levels of protection) tens attempts of the non-authorized access to electronic system of the interbank calculations uniting for today of 176 banks of Ukraine are daily fixed. 161 banks have the right to make operations with currency values. In total for January, 1, 1999 in the Republican book of registration of banks, currency stock exchanges and other financial and economic establishments 214 commercial banks have been registered.


The problem of protection of the information gets a special urgency for law-enforcement bodies. However accepted on May, 14, 1998 the Concept of development system of information supply for law-enforcement bodies of Ukraine on 1998-2000, considers questions of information protection at an organizational level only. At the same time, technical base of information networks in Ukraine are means of computer facilities of foreign manufacture. It is threaten with that, at presence of malicious intention, manufacturers and foreign suppliers of computers have an opportunity to build in computers the electronic "bookmarks" allowing to scan (contactless information setting) and decode the data on significant distance. It is necessary to note, that recently a lot of not state structures is engaged in import of technical information seting devices. Uncontrolled sale of these devices not only creates conditions for infringement of human rights, but also promotes a hardware of the organized criminal groupings. [4]


Thus, computer economic criminality and as its version, swindle in bank sphere on the basis of use of plastic payment means is, first of all, a new criminal phenomenon in social and economic sphere. The analysis for last 5 years worldwide including in Ukraine, testifies to constant increase of a professional level of their executors and growing complexity of revealing, qualification and investigation of the given kind of crimes. It demands creation of complex system of safety of the electronic payments, scientifically proved programs of legal and technological preparation of all subjects - participants of payment systems, and also employees of law-enforcement bodies.


The problem of struggle against swindle in bank sphere was developed both in the domestic literature, and in works of foreign authors. As the official point of view until recently was based that in Ukraine there are no objective conditions and preconditions for appearance and prompt growth "white-collar" criminality, the serious basic researches of this phenomenon were absent.


1. A general history of the state and the law. K.Batyr. - M. 1995. p. 393.




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